Intro to Design Thinking

I have the privilege of attending the Stanford d.school’s Design Thinking Bootcamp, an opportunity I was turned on to by a friend in the venture capital community. In preparation for the program, attendees were asked to conduct an “Ideation” session at their place of work with other managers and decision-makers in their organization. This is an opportunity to not only get an introduction to the attitudes and tools used in design thinking, but also to begin practicing with these ideas immediately within one’s business as part of the design thinking meta is “a bias toward action.”

Here are some takeaways about thinking creatively and generating ideas in a collaborative environment that I’ve gained so far:

  • Adopt a “Yes, and…” Attitude
  • First generate, then evaluate
  • Don’t just find one idea
  • Think in terms of a specific problem
  • Focus on emotions
  • Use constraints to increase idea volume
  • Use analogous thinking to go some place else
  • Use “QBD” to evaluate ideas
  • Think about the “headline”, not the “article”
  • If it doesn’t get written down, it didn’t happen

More details on each of these ideas, and impressions from my actual ideation sessions, follow:

Adopt a “Yes, and…” Attitude

When people come together to create ideas, they have a habit of seeking to find what is wrong with their collaborators thinking, rather than what is right. The goal in design thinking is to first come up with a lot of ideas, not to find the “right” idea as quickly as possible. A helpful attitude to adopt is “Yes, and…” which means, whenever your collaborators come up with an idea, reply “Yes, and…” and then build off of their idea, either with an additional flourish or iteration, or with another idea you have in mind that their idea has led you to think. Don’t try to make yourself look smart, try to make your partners look brilliant.

First generate, then evaluate

Another intuitive habit most people bring with them to creative sessions is to try to evaluate ideas as fast as they’re generated. No sooner does someone have a new idea than does that person, or a collaborator, try to figure out if the idea “fits” with the constraints of the project. Many ideas that are either excellent on their own, or could lead to an excellent and realizable idea, are tossed out in the instant evaluation before they’ve had a chance to make an impact. Get in the habit of separating the generation of ideas and the thinking through the merits of the ideas generated. Never confuse the two or allow the processes to mingle in your thoughts or practice.

Don’t just find one idea

When you’ve got a problem, you only need ONE solution. And ultimately, you can only implement one solution– time, resources, etc. are scarce. So it’s easy to think the goal is to “just come up with one idea.” But trying to find the right idea means evaluating as you generate, and it also means pre-qualifying your own thinking before you even generate ideas. Your goal in ideation is actually to generate as many ideas as you can, regardless of whether they make sense, actually solve your problem, are feasible, etc. Go for quantity, not quality, when generating ideas.

Think in terms of a specific problem

It helps to come up with ideas when your problem is specific enough to be solved by an idea you come up with. This means thinking in terms of a specific group of people and in terms of a specific change you want to bring about, either an action or a state of mind. A prompt that can help is to frame your problem with this ad lib– “What can we create for… [specific group of people] that makes them/that helps them [choose one] … [a physical action you want them to take, or a state of mind you want them to adopt]?” An example would be, “What can we create for 10 to 12 year old kids that makes them excited to eat vegetables?” The problem is specific– it is about 10 to 12 year old kids, a group of people with distinct qualities. And what the solution provides is also specific– it will generate a feeling of excitement in them in relation to their eating vegetables.

Focus on emotions

You’ve got your problem. It’s important to think of the mental state of the “user” you’re solving for. Almost inevitably, finding a solution will involve focusing on the change in the mental state that is necessary to motivate action. Sometimes, the change in the mental state by itself is the goal, for example, “What can we create for customers who are angry with us that will make them love us and tell all their friends?” Translating the problem during the ideation process into an emotional state creates a valuable constraint (discussed below) for increasing idea volume.

Use constraints to increase idea volume

It is counterintuitive, but putting constraints on your idea process actually allows you to be even more creative because it focuses the mind in specific ways. Some constraints used as examples in the ideation workshop were “Every idea must cost $1 million” or “Every idea must get you in trouble with your boss”. Imagine you actually have a budget constraint– you only have $50,000 to spend on a solution. Coming with the REAL budget as a constraint is likely to limit your thinking because you’ll immediately begin pre-qualifying and evaluating ideas as you try to generate them.

But if you invert the real constraint into an imaginary one where you must SPEND a large sum of money on your idea as a minimum, you will end up with a sense of much more freedom. Later, you can take those high dollar ideas and figure out how to reduce the cost to something that is actually affordable. The inversion process allows you to hurdle over your real constraint which would limit your creativity and therefore your ability to find a real solution.

You could think of arbitrary constraints, simply to inspire creative and offbeat thinking, or you could try inverting real constraints to trick yourself into thinking past them. The d.school profs use the metaphor of the thumb over the garden hose, which forces high pressure jets of water to spray over a larger area versus just using the innate pressure of the hose which tends to dribble out.

Use analogous thinking to go some place else

Another tool for successful ideation is to create analogous situations and imagine how those people or institutions would handle the creation of a solution for your problem. To find analogies, you translate your problem into the emotional state, mentioned earlier. Sometimes it’s easy and obvious, because you already have an emotional change as a condition of your solution. But if you don’t, this can take some creativity in and of itself to figure out what the emotion is you’re searching for. As an example, if your problem was “What can we create for our hiring department that helps them to only hire people who exceed our standards?” the emotional state might be “confidence.”

Once you have your emotional state, you must ask yourself, “What kind of person, group or place is superb at generating this kind of emotion?” Once you have a list of such entities that excel at generating this emotion, you can do an iterative process of asking yourself, “What would X create for… that helps them/that makes them…?”

Now you are in someone else’s shoes, thinking about the world the way they do and you have unlocked an entirely different form of creativity from your own.

Use “QBD” to evaluate ideas

Okay, you’ve got a ton of ideas at this point. Now it’s (finally) time to evaluate them. But you’re not just going to start deciding which are possible and which are insane. Instead, you’re going to use more creativity to evaluate your ideas. You’re going to think about which ideas are Quick, Breakthrough or Delightful.

Quick ideas may not be full or perfect solutions, but they could be reasonably implemented right away and this incremental progress would have an immediate impact– things would get better as far as your problem is concerned. This is an important way of thinking about selecting solutions because often no solution is found in search of a holistic or perfect one, which either doesn’t exist or can’t be accessed in a linear way of thinking. By selecting a Quick solution, you can take steps toward what might be a final, perfect solution and get a win in the meantime.

Breakthrough ideas might not work, but if they did, they’d be a game changer. They’d be an all new way of solving the problem, or they’d give the group who employs them a distinct competitive advantage, or greatly leverage their efforts. Breakthrough ideas help us think about how to shift paradigms and find solutions that don’t just work, but work insanely well.

Delightful ideas are just that– if we implement them, people feel GREAT. And feeling great is an important part of solving problems and making progress in our work or business. When we find Delightful ideas, we find ways to inspire, motivate and energize people that can lead to other creativity or effectiveness that we can’t imagine or anticipate in simply solving the problem.

Think about the “headline”, not the “article”

When generating and sharing ideas, it’s important to think and communicate in terms of the big impact, high level concept of the idea and not get bogged down in the nitty gritty details– that way lies the habit of criticizing, condemning and evaluating before a good idea can take root, or inspire another. The instructors refer to this as thinking about the “headline” and not the “article.” An example would be, “Hire an expert interviewer” versus “Find a person with X years of experience interviewing people, pay them $Y per year, assign them duties of A, B and C, they will report to Z and will be measured in their performance by E, F and G.” You can find any number of things in the article version that might be unrealistic or impractical, if you can even come up with all the necessary details. It is putting the cart before the horse. You first have to come up with the big idea and see how it could lead to a Quick, Breakthrough or Delightful improvement for your problem, and then you can go about fleshing it out and figuring out how to make it practically work.

If it doesn’t get written down, it didn’t happen

This idea is a good practice for any meeting or information-sharing activity of any kind but it seems to be especially relevant to the process of ideation– if you aren’t writing ideas down as you’re coming up with them, they may as well not exist. By the end of a 1hr long ideation session, you might have come up with fifty or sixty different ideas and concepts as a team. Who can remember what those were by the end of it? So it is important to write them down as you go. The instructors recommend using sticky notes and slapping them on the wall as you go, which not only serves to keep things written down and makes it easy to move ideas around as you review and ideate, but the small amount of space necessarily forces one to think in “headline” terms.

Another thing that should be written down, repeatedly, is the prompt of the problem you are trying to solve (“What can we create for…?”) as well as the specific constraints, analogies, etc., that you are bringing to bear on them as you focus your ideation in different ways.

Our experience with ideation as a team

My ideation workshop involved 5 other people in our organization in addition to myself, all group managers or individuals with lead authority at the operating unit level. We split up into 2 teams of three to work through our ideation process.

One takeaway is that collaborative idea generation is FUN. We genuinely had a good time working together to come up with solutions to our organization’s problems. There was a lot of laughter, spirited talking and debate and enthusiasm. Often times a team would race ahead with a prompt or keep working after designated time was up because they were so caught up in their thinking and idea generation.

Another takeaway is that anyone can be creative. Most of the operating managers were selected because they tend to experiment and try new things in their operations, but what really makes them excellent in their roles is that they relentlessly stick to a proven system of processes and procedures. There may have been some fear that people who are really good enforcing a set of orders might not be able to come up with creative new ideas. This just wasn’t the case. They all had a ton of ideas and I think one thing that was clear by the end of the session was that everyone would’ve liked to have selected their individual problem they brought to the group for ideation work when we could only pick one at a time.

A third takeaway is that the trail one follows to arrive at workable solutions often starts in an unpredictable and highly abstract place. It highlighted for us the value of every idea generated, and the importance of separating generation from evaluation. Where you start is rarely where you will end and if you can embrace the idea of accepting all ideas as valuable and disregarding their merit or feasibility at the outset, you can let those ideas unlock all kinds of interesting solutions you otherwise may not have accessed.

Finally, we realized that even when we came up with an idea that we thought was Breakthrough or Delightful, but lacked obvious practical application, we could begin “trimming” and paring down the idea from there to find something we COULD do with it that still tapped into the essence or principle of the original idea. For example, one group came up with the idea of hiring a professional athlete to be a motivational coach to our organization’s managers. We don’t have the budget for that, nor is that athlete necessarily available for hire, but we can think about what kind of qualities we believe he would bring to such a role and look for a person we could hire that can bring those qualities, or the way we could change processes or definitions of roles within the organization to incorporate those values we now realize are essential to helping us solve a known problem. I think of this as “analogizing from the analogy”.

I can see how the ideation process, which we are just being introduced to through this practice work, can add value for all people at all levels of responsibility within our organization. It is inspiring and motivating, it creates the “bias towards action” in the person doing it and it yields real results which can actually make things better for us, our customers and our team. I am sold!

Review – The Intelligent Investor

The Intelligent Investor: A Book of Practical Counsel

by Benjamin Graham, published 2006

What follows are the notes from my third (lifetime) re-reading of Graham’s classic investment treatise. I had planned to re-read this book after a market sell-off, but I realized this was a futile act of meta-market timing self-delusion and decided since I was interested in it I should just re-read it now. I am glad I did!

Introduction

Developing knowledge about past market experience with stock and bond investments is key to intelligent investment; surveying the past with its ups and downs not only makes the future more predictable but helps to create a rational baseline for our own expectations about what is possible with our investment portfolios. Experience shows that enthusiasm almost always leads to disaster. Market conditions can reward, on a relative basis, a passive versus an active approach– sometimes the effort to reward ratio of active management is not worth the trouble.

The investor’s chief problem is likely to be himself. Mastering oneself is a necessary part of mastering one’s investment program.

The future is uncertain. Nonetheless, we must act on the assumption that sound principles will see us through a variety of conditions over time, just as they have in the past.

Chapter 1

In most periods of market experience there is a “speculative factor” in common stock prices due to the enthusiasm of the marketplace. We must keep it within limits and be prepared for short and long-term adverse results in terms of both financial and psychological experience whenever this speculative factor is present. Acknowledging this reality, it’s extremely important to keep speculative and investment positions in separate accounts and never to let them mingle financially or in our thoughts.

Better than average results require promising prospects (in terms of risk versus reward) and a lack of popular following of certain portfolio holdings when purchased.

Chapter 2

There is no close, time-causal relation between inflationary or deflationary conditions and stock earnings and prices (likely because of Cantillon effects). Earnings rates have shown no general tendency to advance with wholesale price increases. The best result to expect from one’s investment program over long periods of time is approximately an 8% per annum return from a combination of dividends and price increases.

It is the uncertainty of the future that makes the lack of diversification (between common equity and cash/fixed income in a portfolio) folly. At one extreme, one might allocate 25% to stocks and 75% to cash or fixed income, and at the other extreme the inverse. The “happy medium” is 50%/50% between the two. Never should one have 100% of one’s capital in stocks or cash/fixed income– the former suggests an irrational optimism about the future and a total disregard for the risk of adverse conditions, and the former suggests an overly pessimistic view that has given in to the unknowable temptation to time the markets.

Chapter 3

Rather than try to time the market, it is more important to follow a consistent and controlled common stock policy and to discourage the impulse to “beat the market” and to “pick the winners”. The work of a financial analyst falls somewhere in the middle of a mathematician and an orator, in that he must be exact where he can, and qualify where he can’t.

Chapter 4

The rate of return sought from one’s investment portfolio should be dependent upon the amount of intelligent effort one is willing (and able) to bring to bear on the task. Passive indexing requires the least intelligent effort and should bring the lowest return expectation; active value strategies entail the most intelligent effort and should have commensurately higher return expectations.

Long experience shows that the average investor should stay away from high yield (junk) bonds. Experience also teaches that the time to buy preferred shares is when prices are depressed by temporary adversity.

With every new wave of optimism or pessimism, we are ready to abandon history and time-tested principles, but we cling tenaciously and unquestioningly to our prejudices. This is a bias of human psychology which must be overcome if one is to have a successful long-term investment record.

Chapter 5

Common stocks have an added degree of security when the average dividend yield exceeds the yield over that which can be obtained from good bonds.

Rules for common stock portfolios for the defensive investor:

  1. Minimum of ten different issues
  2. Large, prominent and conservatively financed companies
  3. Long record of continuous dividend payments
  4. 25x past 7yr average earnings (4% earnings yield) and 20x LTM earnings, at a maximum

Experience shows that large, relatively unpopular companies offer a good hunting ground for the defensive investor to search in.

Chapter 6

Avoid inferior bonds and preferred stocks at prices greater than a 30% discount to pay value; never buy yield without safety. Owners of foreign debt issues have limited legal recourse, which increases their risk. IPOs can be good purchases… years after the fact, at small fractions of their true worth; let others make the quick profits and experience the harrowing losses of recently issued stocks.

Chapter 7

Danger lies in market/public price enthusiasm outstripping earnings growth. Confidence in your investments is a function of proximity and control.

There are 3 primary sources of selection for the enterprising investor’s portfolio:

  1. Large, out of favor companies due to temporary developments; large companies are safer than small companies because they’re more likely to weather the storm; always judge average past earnings, not LTM
  2. 50% discount to BV or greater, due to currently disappointing results or protracted neglect/lack of popularity
    1. require reasonable stability of earnings over past decade
    2. no earnings deficit in the company’s history
    3. sufficient size and strength to meet possible future setbacks
    4. NCAV bargains are safe and profitable method for finding bargains
  3. “Special situations”

The reasons why bargain issues lead to good performance:

  • dividend returns are relatively high
  • reinvested earnings, which are substantial relative to price paid (BV grows rapidly)
  • bull markets are more generous to low-priced issues
  • specific factors contributing to poor earnings may be resolved in the interim

One must choose to engage in either active (enterprising) or passive (defensive) investing, there is no room to do both without becoming speculative in one’s thoughts and actions, ie, can’t be “half a businessman”.

Bargain pricing territory begins at 66% of appraised value, as a return to 100% or fair value indicates a 50% potential upside at purchase price.

If you can control a company, you can safely pay closer to fair value for it.

The investor’s choice as between the defensive or the aggressive status is of major consequence to him and he should not allow himself to be confused or compromised in this basic decision.

Chapter 8

Investment formulas are ephemeral and their popularity is their undoing. Rather than market timing, commit to proportional exposure to stocks and cash/fixed income. Every investor who owns common stocks must expect to see them fluctuate in value over the years. Most holdings will advance as much as 50% above the lows, and fall 33% from highs, so set your expectations accordingly.

The virtue of the proportionality formula is that it gives the investor something to do; often it is the inability to sit still and the propensity to tinker that leads to risky novelty. Ironically, higher quality common stocks have more of a speculative element in their price which contributes to their volatility; it is their very popularity and perceived safety which invites unscrupulous risk-takers to dabble in the trading at the margin where the price is set.

Stocks bought closer to book value allow for greater detachment from price fluctuations. Try to be in a position to buy more, including what you already own, when prices fall, assuming value remains in tact. The stock market is often wrong, far wrong, creating opportunity for courageous and alert investors.

All business quality changes with time, sometimes for better and sometimes for worse. Everything is a trade given circumstances and time. Allowing unjustified price action in one’s holdings to influence one’s actions is to turn the basic advantage of liquidity into a disadvantage. True investors see price fluctuations one way: as opportunity to buy what is cheap and sell what is dear. Therefore, the litmus test for investment versus speculation is this, Do you try to anticipate and profit from market fluctuations, or do you look for suitable securities to acquire and hold at suitable prices?

Good managements produce good average market prices and bad managements produce bad market prices.

Chapter 10

Businessmen seek professional advice on various elements of their business, but they do not expect to be told how to make a profit; investors must be similarly responsible.

Chapter 11

The behavior of a security analyst includes:

  • examine past, present and future of a security
  • describe the business
  • summarize its operating results and financial position
  • explain the strengths and weaknesses of the business, its possibilities and risks
  • estimate future earnings power under various assumptions
  • compare companies, or the same company at different times in its history
  • provide an opinion as to the safety of the security

The more dependent valuation is on an assumption about the future, the more vulnerable that valuation is to miscalculation and error.

When evaluating corporate bond safety, judge it by the total interest charges as a multiple of past average earnings (7yrs) or against the “poorest year” of earnings.

No one really knows anything about the future. A company with a high valuation for good performance is already getting a premium for good management, don’t double count management value separately.

One test of quality is an uninterrupted record of dividends going back a number of years. Dividends can’t be forged.

The multiple on earnings is an implied growth rate, pay attention to this fact. There is no way to value a high growth company in which the analyst makes realistic assumptions of both the proper multiple for current earnings and the expected multiple for future earnings.

An analyst can be imaginative and play for big profits as a reward for his vision (entrepreneurship) or he can be conservative and refuse to pay more than a minor premium for possibilities as yet unproved; but do one or the other.

As an exercise, do a valuation based on past performance and another on expected future performance and compare the two. This can be beneficial because it:

  1. provides useful experience
  2. creates a record of the experience (allowing for self-evalution)
  3. may lead to improved methods of analysis in examining the record

Chapter 12

Don’t take a single year’s earnings seriously, it’s too easy to fudge the numbers with special charges and one-off items. Sometimes large losses in the past create tax advantages which boost earnings unfairly in the present, so remember to adjust earnings for the average tax impact. Using average earnings smooths out special charges and other one-time items which is another reason to use an average as it reduces the work of trying to “normalize” earnings over time.

Chapter 13

High valuations entail high risks.

Chapter 14

You should reject from your consideration companies which:

  • are too small
  • have a relatively weak financial condition
  • have a stigma of earnings deficit in their 10 year record
  • do not possess a long history of continuous dividends

There is an absence of safety when too large a portion of the price is dependent on ever-increasing future earnings. Stock portfolio earnings overall should be at least as high as the rate on high grade bonds.

Even defensive portfolios should be turned over occasionally, if a holding has seen excessive advance and this is a more reasonably priced issue available. It’s better to sell and pay the tax than not to sell and repent the foregone profits.

Do not be willing to accept prospects and promises of the future as compensation for the lack of sufficient value in hand. Leave the “best” stock alone, instead emphasize diversification more than individual selection. If one could select the best unerringly, one would only lose by diversification.

Chapter 15

There are extremely few companies which have been able to show a high rate of uninterrupted growth for long periods of time; conversely, remarkably few of the larger companies suffer ultimate extinction. Competitive advantage in investing lays in focusing one’s efforts on the part of the market systematically overlooked by everyone else.

When Graham owned net-nets, he owned about 100 at a time– “extreme” diversification.

The Graham-Newman playbook included:

  • self-liquidations and related hedges (performed well in bear markets)
  • working-capital bargains (NCAVs)
  • a few control operations

The right time to buy a cyclical enterprise is when:

  1. the current situation is unfavorable (macro)
  2. near-term prospects are poor
  3. the low price fully reflects the pessimism of the market

When browsing the stock guides for opportunity, look for the following characteristics:

  1. P/E of 9x or less
  2. financial condition
    1. current assets >= 1.5x current liabilities
    2. debt <= 1.1x net current assets
  3. earnings, no deficit in the last 5 yrs
  4. some history of dividends
  5. earnings growth, last years earnings > 5 yrs ago
  6. price < 1.2x BV

You can use ValueLine, stock screeners or Google Finance-linked GSheets to filter.

If you were to use a single criteria to pick stocks, two items have worked successfully in the past:

  1. important companies (S&P 500) trading at a low multiplier
  2. a diversified list of net-nets have performed “quite satisfactorily”

When the going is good and new issues are readily saleable, stock offerings of no quality at all make their appearance.

Special situations are the realm of the pro and require focus and dedication to yield results. Do not do them as one-offs.

Chapter 16

The addition of a conversion privilege on a security betrays the absence of investment quality.

Chapter 17

If a company pays no taxes for a long time, it throws into question the validity of reported earnings. Watch out also for “channel stuffing” of special charges into a single year on the income statement.

Chapter 19

When to raise questions with management:

  • unsatisfactory results
  • results which are poor compared to competitors
  • long discrepancy between price and value

As a rule, poor managers are changed not by activism, but by a change of control.

Dividends can be valuable to the owner of a poorly-run company because they allow some value to escape from the clutches of bad management.

There is no reason to believe expansion moves by a bad management will deliver anything other than more poor results.

Chapter 20

The function of the Margin of Safety is to render unnecessary an accurate estimate of the future. In stocks, the Margin of Safety lies in the expected earning power being considerably above the going bond rate. Chief losses come from low quality businesses bought in favorable times. Margin of Safety is totally dependent on the price paid; it is largest at one price, smaller at another and non-existent at a third.

The insurance underwriting process can be thought of as Margin of Safety applied to diversification of bets.

There is no Margin of Safety available in staking money on a market call.

There is no valid reason for optimism or pessimism of the continued function of quantitative methods of analysis.

The Margin of Safety is demonstrated by figures, persuasive reasoning and reference to actual experience.

Do not try to make “business profits” out of securities unless you know as much about their value as you’d need to know about the value of merchandise you proposed to manufacture and deal in. Do not enter into an operation unless a reliable calculation shows it has a fair chance of a reasonable profit. Stay away from situations where you have little to gain and much to lose. Have courage in your knowledge and experience; act on your judgment even when it differs from others. Courage is the supreme virtue when adequate knowledge and tested judgment are at hand.

To achieve satisfactory results is easier than most people realize; to achieve superior results is harder than it looks.

Postscript

One lucky break, or shrewd decision, may count more than a lifetime of journeyman efforts; but those efforts — preparation and disciplined capacity — are what expose you to the good fortune in the first place.

The Superinvestors of Graham-and-Doddsville

Think always of price and value.

With a significant Margin of Safety in place, something good might happen to me.

Size is the anchor of performance.

Always buy the business, not the stock, mentally speaking.

The greater the potential for reward, the less risk there is.

Don’t make easy things difficult.

Potential for profit will exist as long as price and value diverge in the market.

5/5

Reflections On Your First Six Months (Or So)

Hello Little Lion!

Another 90 days (+/-) have passed since we last wrote and we thought it was time to catalog a few observations once more.

You went on your first cross-country trip by commercial jet in April. We decided to invest in a stroller and car seat system that were more travel-friendly and it was definitely worth the money. While we were a bit anxious about getting you and your equipment through security, onto the plane and then back off on each leg of the journey, the thoughtful design of our purchase made that part of the trip relatively stress-free, and believe it or not we got a lot of support and patience from the people in the TSA and the gate agents and flight attendants. You of course managed to fill your diaper several times before, during and after the flight but Papa Lion figured out how to get you changed in the tight quarters fairly quick and by the third time he felt like he was a pro and could do anything!

Our friends and their little daughter were so happy to get to meet you and spend some time with you while you were still little.

You slowly started to lose all your birth-hair over the last few months as it was replaced by new hairs you’ve grown outside the womb. You came into the world with a full head of fairly thick and long hair, and the way it fell out was so funny and left you looking wise beyond your years– you developed a “Philosopher’s crown” of long hair on the side and back of your head with a big bald spot on top. It’s now all replaced, except for a light patch on the back of your head where you pivot around to look while on your back. And also, your extensive original side burns, which remind us of the style of the Orthodox Jewish men.

Your teeth started coming in at four months! You have seven along the top and the bottom right now and you continue drooling and fingering your mouth so we think there are more. You’ve fattened up considerably from when we last checked in. We’re sorry to say we hardly recognize your early baby pictures, because we realize they are a glaring example of our first mistake as parents– not understanding how important it was to get you some extra supplementation with formula feeding. We really agonized over that decision and how to go about it but the encouragement to do so was unanimous from the professionals we consulted with along the way and they were absolutely correct. The tongue-tie you were born with just made it impossible for you to be a purely-breast fed baby.

Your mother, the Wolf, has worked tirelessly since your birth to pump for you so that you still get your primary nutrition from her breast milk, something we know is specially formulated just for you and your needs. We are happy that you shot right past our ignorance with her extra love and care for you and at this point no one would ever suspect you had started out the way you did if we didn’t tell them. You’ve had one minor cold that led to a few days of coughing and runny nose but aside from that you’ve been disease-free, cheerful and growing in weight and strength every day. Whereas last time we checked in you still looked and felt in our hands like something new and fragile, now you have some “heft” and chunkiness that makes you stand out as your own person.

Your mobility development as been amazing for us to watch! You learned to roll over a few months ago and just in the last week you have begun spinning on your stomach. You’re not yet scooting or crawling but that’s where you’re going next. By rolling and pivoting, you can get to a lot of places. We can no longer set you down on the middle of your play area and expect to find you there a few minutes later. And we’re having to get more and more creative at bed time in corraling you on the bed because you like to roll around a lot now as you continue practicing mobility in your sleep. We lay you down one way and come in at our own bed time to find you have rotated a completely different way.

You started sleeping through the night a few months ago, and we were so grateful to get a few weeks of mostly uninterrupted sleep. But you’re still growing and changing, and you’ve “regressed” to wakefulness at night again as you’re sensitive to our movements and your own, which are many. Sometimes you wake up in the middle of the night, talk to yourself and coo and play for fifteen or twenty minutes and then decide to go back to sleep! It’s really cute, but really challenging for us to get our rest right now. We’re never mad about it, though, we know this is what we should expect and we understand how important it is for you to keep growing and changing and we know we’ll get back to a place where we can all sleep peacefully. Eventually.

One thing we are so satisfied with right now is your incredible focus and self-reliance while playing. Your concentration and ability to emotionally self-sustain have grown over the last ninety days and it is very easy to lay you down on your mat and see forty-five minutes pass before you need an emotional recharge from us. Your toys are simple things– plastic hair rollers, wooden rings, rubber “muffin wrappers”, colorful bandanas, a geometric “wire frame” ball with holes for your fingers. You like test the properties of these toys in endless ways, handling them, chewing them, squeezing them, turning them around and around and looking at them from different angles, combining or swiping them past one another. Your at a stage where simple things that allow you to repeat and refine an operation over and over again are plenty stimulating for you. Every now and then you’ll look for our eyes, to see if we’re near, or to see if we’re watching, but mostly you like to just focus on what you’re doing intently.

Your verbalizations have changed, too. Cooing, quick breathing, incoherent chattering and shrieking. Oh yes, the shrieking! Sometimes you will use all your might to summon your voice and expel

 

(at this point, several weeks ago, you woke from your nap, I set my laptop down and failed to return to this post and complete it. So I am posting it as is… because you’re now 1.5 months older than when I wrote it and a lot of changes have taken place again!)